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  1. What is creating the need to sequester carbon?
  2. How much carbon needs to be sequestered to stop the earths’ temperature rise?
  3. Are the PRDD processes sufficiently scalable to meaningfully meet this need?
  4. PRDD’s CO2 capture and repurpose process is carbon negative. What does that mean?
  5. What is the return on investment and profit associated with the PRDD CO2 capture & repurpose process?
  6. How stable are the financial benefits associated with Government incentives and Carbon markets?
  7. What is the status of the utility patent filed to protect the CO2 capture & repurpose process?
  8. What is PRDD’s business model?

Question 1 - What is creating the need to sequester carbon?

Starting with the industrial age, this planet gradually began creating more CO2 than the earth’s natural ability to sequester can handle. The oceans are the world’s largest carbon capture device. The CO2 is stored as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the ocean floor, but this enormous capture device is slow and becoming overwhelmed by the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and the rate it is transferred into the oceans.

Figure 1 describes the ocean’s CO2 capture process when working properly.


Explanation of Figure 1

Starting with CO2. It can come or go but currently with high levels in the atmosphere it predominately enters the sea.

Key to molecular symbols:
(CO3-2) = Carbonate
(HCO3-) = Bicarbonate
(H2CO3) = Carbonic acid

The three molecules noted above are shown on the horizontal line above the circle. The three collaborate in an equilibrium process that holds the oceans pH near 8.1 .

The circular group of symbols shows how the bicarbonate concentration changes to compensate for changes in the CO2 entering the ocean from the atmosphere. Unfortunately, since the onset of the industrial age, the circular pattern shown in Figure 1 is unable to keep up with the rate of CO2 entering the sea from the atmosphere, and that is causing ocean acidification.

Laws of chemistry require oceans to continue accepting CO2 from the atmosphere despite the oceans inability to maintain a pH equilibrium that is essential for aquatic life. This overwhelming situation has caused ocean acidification that is currently destroying the ecosystem as described in Figure 2.


Explanation of Figure 2

The equilibrium is fractured in this figure because carbonic acid is in excess. This excess acid dissolves the shells of living organisms and other abnormalities. Aquatic farmers along the north west coast of the US are seeing deformed oysters, crabs and more. The acid also dissolves planktonic organisms that are the basis of ocean food chains.


PRDD provides the best available solution to the ocean’s acidity. CO2 is converted directly into the exact compounds the ocean uses to regulate its acidity: carbonate (CO3-2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-1).


The process can capture more carbon than it makes when operated. This is explained in the answer to Question 4.


The PRDD CO2 capture & repurpose process is commercially viable in California. See details in answer to Question 5.

Question 2 - How much carbon needs to be sequestered to stop the earths’ temperature rise?

Figure 3 graphically provides a global “balance sheet” for annual CO2 production, conversion (sinks) and net excess CO2 entering the atmosphere in billion tons over a 9 year period. Unfortunately, Figure 3 does not consider the oceans inability to process all of the 9.2 billion tons of CO2 it is forced to accept. The “forced acceptance” creates the ocean acidification problem described Question 1 above.


The simple estimated annual amount of CO2 that should be captured per year to stop temperature rise is 2.7 billion tons of CO2 per year.

The complete answer includes less dramatic reductions in other compounds like SO2, O3, NOx, VOC’s, and others.

Question 3 - Are the PRDD processes sufficiently scalable to meaningfully meet the required reduction in CO2?

Answer: YES

1. The mechanically simple PRDD CO2 processes are not size limited.

The treatment reaction chambers are low maintenance and low cost because they are essentially empty tubes with static mixers, nozzles, and air/liquid separation devices made of inexpensive materials.

2. Installation is simple for the PRDD CO2 equipment so the equipment can be utilized in remote areas because the technology will not be limited by the need for sophisticated technical personnel. The equipment is also very adaptable. For example, the reaction vessels can be oriented in any direction and the process support equipment does not need to be located with the reaction chambers.

3. No scarcity of the consumable chemical. Sodium chloride (table salt), the consumable chemical for the PRDD CO2 process is readily available and inexpensive.

4. Low operating cost. The PRDD CO2 capture and repurpose process operates primarily on waste heat from a combustion process. Solar can provide the small amount of electricity required for pump, controls etc.

5. All process byproducts are commercially viable and in high demand.

6. The PRDD equipment integrates well with existing equipment or it can operate as a stand-alone system. The PRDD CO2 equipment is an ideal match for large existing systems like power plants and refineries that require CO2 abatement but have limited space.

7. The PRDD CO2 system is the best available technology for marine applications.

  • Small size and flexible reactor configuration.
  • No need to waste cargo space on chemicals because the PRDD CO2 process can generate its consumable from seawater.
  • If required, PRDD provides additional scrubbers that will treat the NOx, SOx from marine engine heavy fuel oil.
  • The CO2, NOx and SOx scrubbers all recycle chemicals used in the treatment process using waste heat from combustion.
No other CO2 capture system has all of these attributes found in the PRDD CO2 capture and repurpose technology.

Graphic description of the PRDD CO2 process

Figure 4 provides a generalized orientation of the PRDD CO2 capture and repurpose process. Methodology shown in Figure 4 is explained:

  • Capture CO2 and convert it into carbonate while recycling the reagents used to accomplish this task with waste heat.
  • Optionally convert all or some of the carbonate into bicarbonate by re-exposing the process liquid to CO2 again. Again, the reagents used to accomplish this task are recycled using waste heat from a combustion process.
  • The carbonate and bicarbonate are produced as byproducts that can be used for soil conditioning or to control ocean acidity.
  • The process uses sodium hydroxide. The process has the ability to make this consumable from salt brine, ocean water or other sources of table salt.
  • The reaction chamber is a simple tube that can be oriented in any direction.


Question 4: PRDD’s CO2 capture and repurpose process is carbon negative. What does that mean?

Definitions: Carbon neutrality, or “net zero,” means that any CO2 released into the atmosphere from human activity is balanced by an equivalent amount being removed. Becoming carbon negative requires a company, sector, or country to remove more CO2 from the atmosphere than it emits.

Three categories of atmospheric CO2 removal:

  1. Nature based solutions like reforestation and afforestation (Growing forest on land that was not previously a forest).
  2. Enhanced natural processes including land/sea management to increase the carbon content in the soil through farming methods.
  3. Technology solutions involve carbon capture and storage and the capture of CO2 directly from the atmosphere.

The PRDD CO2 capture solution is a carbon negative process that integrates all three categories when it is coupled with appropriate ocean dosing of its carbonate and bicarbonate biproducts:

  • The skilled dosing of carbonates and bicarbonates into the ocean reverses ocean acidification and allows the ocean to capture carbon as carbonate in a natural way as shown in Figure 1.

  • The above is exceptionally carbon negative because the ship dosing the carbonate/bicarbonate is scrubbing its exhaust using PRDD technology and the material being dosed was made at a facility using PRDD technology, so both are carbon negative. The additional CO2 sequestration in the ocean that is the result of the dosing is completely carbon negative.
  • In addition to resolving ocean acidification, skilled dosing of carbonates and bicarbonates can build new ocean productivity in local reef communities as well as enhance the health of plankton. Both of these contribute to CO2 sequestration, and oxygen production that result in a more robust overall ocean ecosystem.

  • This is carbon negative for the same reasons described above.
  • The manufacturing and operation of the PRDD CO2 process equipment itself is carbon negative. The PRDD process can make its own consumables from salt/brine etc. and clean up the CO2 associated with making electricity required to convert salt to the consumable. During operation, the PRDD equipment recycles the chemicals used in the process with waste heat. The PRDD reaction chambers can be made from recycled plastic. If required, the CO2 generated to make electricity needed to form the materials into parts can be cleaned with the PRDD process.

Collectively the PRDD CO2 capture and sequestration process is the most carbon negative process of its kind.

Question 5: What is the return on investment and profit associated with the PRDD CO2 capture & repurpose process?

As referenced earlier, California sets an excellent example of environmental government / free enterprise cooperation and that makes this process very profitable. The following data reflects the economics related to PRDD’s first full scale project near Santa Barbara, CA.

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

In addition to this client, PRDD is also interacting with a number of other firms that express sincere interest in utilizing the CO2 capture and repurpose technology.

Question 6: How stable are the financial benefits associated with Government incentives and Carbon markets?


  • The California Air Resources Board (CARB) low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) became law on 15 April 2010 and implementation of the regulation began 1 January 2011. The regulation was amended in 2009 and 2011 then re-adopted in 2015. It remains in place today. This California plan has been historically stable even through the Trump’s unrelenting efforts to the contrary. The Low Carbon Fuel Standard is designed to decrease the carbon intensity of California's transportation fuel pool and provide an increasing range of low-carbon and renewable alternatives, which reduce petroleum dependency and achieve air quality benefits. Project-based Crediting
    • Emission-reduction actions at refineries and crude oil production/transportation facilities.
    • Carbon capture & sequestration using direct air capture
    This credit program is included in Figure 6.

  • Cap & Trade, Carbon Credits, Carbon Offsets, Emission Credits
    These activities reduce greenhouse gas emissions by allowing supply and demand to determine the market price for the authority to emit a metric ton of greenhouse gas (credit). Credits can be created by reducing greenhouse gas emissions with improved gas scrubbing technology or planting trees etc. Credits are purchased by firms that are unable to meet emissions requirements for a greenhouse gas. Air quality is improved by requiring a firm to buying more credits than they will emit. For example if a firm wanted to install a furnace that would emit 2 credits of CO2, and they did not have a scrubber that could remove the CO2, then they would need to purchase 3 credits of CO2 to obtain a permit to operate the furnace. The price of credits very between less than $100.00/credit to over 75,000.00 per credit. Credit values also vary geographically – all determined by supply and demand. PRDD has provided scrubbers for firms that earned them 3x the price of the project in credits; it is all about location and timing.
  • US Federal 45Q credit program. (Credit for carbon oxide sequestration)

    This program is defined in US Tax Code 45Q Section 38 et al and has 4 different variations. The core concept of all is a 12 year payment program for the capture and geological storage of CO2. The credit amount increases per calendar year and the amount varies between the plans.

    • The program only involves CO2 and is applicable to many industries but provides special dispensation to the oil industry. The PRDD process has the requisite attributes to be used in any industry.
    • The program is not subject to the same potential volatility of carbon & emissions markets but has many restrictive rules.
    • The 45Q federal tax credit can be combined with state and local clean air incentives including, but not limited to, California LCFS.
    • The construction must start by 2024 and be completed in 6 years (with some exceptions).
    • There are still some ambiguities in the rule interpretation regarding sequestration among other things.
    • In all cases CO2 must be stored geologically or be utilized as a feedstock or component of products. The tax credits and minimum eligible carbon capture plant size vary by type of CO2 sequestration.
  • Figure 9

    This credit program is included in Figure 6.

    • Federal donation tax credit
      The US tax code allows any “thing” that can be appraised to be donated. This definition includes the donation of the carbonate and bicarbonate made by the PRDD CO2 process. The tax credit is equal to the full appraised value of the materials.

      The tax credit involves the establishment of a non-profit organization set up to dose the carbonate and bicarbonate into the ocean. That non-profit will issue a credit based on appraisal to the entity that donates carbonate and bicarbonate made by the PRDD CO2 capture process.

      This process is described in Figure 8 above.

    Question 7: What is the status of the utility patent filed to protect the CO2 capture & repurpose process?

    Good news

    • The Utility patent was filed in January 2019 in the name of Robert G. Richardson
    • The filing included international patent application documents.
    • The USPTO announced in July 2020 that the International Search Report & Written Opinion for this patent application revealed there is “no prior art with significant relevance”. In English this means the patent application is unique without any prior patents that will interfere with the Richardson patent issuance.

    Question 8: What is PRDD’s business model?

    A design for a successful single use technological innovation proved to be resilient for 30 years but did not provide the resources to take PRDD’s insightful technology beyond the first application. That business model has changed to include teaming.

    PRDD self-funded the commercialization of an exceptional NOx/SOx abatement process. Now it is time for others to assist PRDD by contributing to the commercialization of PRDD’s carbon negative CO2 capture and repurpose technology.

    PRDD is now seeking visionaries like the Microsoft Innovation Fund to assist in the commercialization of a unique CO2 capture and repurpose technology.

    The commercialization of PRDD’s CO2 technology has an enormous value environmentally and commercially.

    The world needs to remove about 2.7 billion tons of CO2 /year to stop global warming. If PRDD technology captured and repurposed just 30% of this CO2, the one-time equipment cost would be $12.2 billion dollars.

    The revised PRDD business model will be manifest when the PRDD CO2, NOx and SOx processes are licensed to companies that effectively implement these technologies around the world.

    Join us on this journey.
    In spite of the economic slow down caused COVID and political adversity, PRDD is committed to solving the biggest challenge facing our planet – Global Warming.

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